Sabtu, 19 Maret 2011

Filsafat ilmu

Curricula In Classical Islamic Sciences
Hifni Kwanyar
Introduction. Although ancient Greece, Indian and Sassanian books and texts were
used at the beginning in classical Islamic sciences; but even from the translation
period, critical method was applied on these texts by Islamic education milieu.
When they were teaching sciences, scholars corrected these texts and developed the
programs. Interdisciplinary but detailed science education is mentioned in the
first part of the paper. Critical Thought in Science Education was studied in the
second part. Courses in Medical Education and Curricula and Sub-Disciplines of
Sciences in Ottoman Madrasas are the other parts.
1-Interdisciplinary but Detailed Scientific Study
When first Islamic philosophers were searching Greece (and Indian) philosophy they
also investigated mathematics, chemistry, physics, medicine, astronomy that these
disciplines were in the philosophy in that days.(1) Kindi was saying “it is
impossible to be successful in philosophy unless you know mathematics, and Farabi
“You can enter philosophy with geometry and logic and it is impossible to be
successful unless you know physics. Because physics is the easiest and nearest
discipline to us”(2) Farabi (d.339A.H/950 A.D) had written Risala fima yanbaghi
an yuqaddam qabla taallum al-Falsafa (Booklet on Necessary (Topics) Before
Learning Philosophy) as a guide-book for students of philosophy. Syriacs did not
read the sources in Syriac after Farabi wrote his kulliyyat on logic. His
classification of knowledge influenced to muslim and latin authors.The third part
(fasl) of Ihsa al-Ulum of Farabi is on mathematics. Arithmetics, geometry, optics,
astronomy, mechanics and cranks are seen in this part. Physics is in the fourth
part. Concept of tawhid (unity of knowledge) is clearly seen in this book.
Political philosophy, natural sciences, ethics, (Islamic) law, (Islamic) theology
are studied together.
Ihsa al-Ulum is like a handbook that reflects the disciplines and researches and
education of 10th century Islamic world. Ihsa al-Ulum became the source of
inspiration for this kind of studies after it, like Rasail al-Ikhwan al-Safa,
Kharizmi’s Mafatih al-Ulum, Ibn Sina’s Aqsam al-Ulum al-Aqliyya, Fakhraddin Razi’s
Jami al-Ulum, Ibn al-Akfani’s Irshad al-Qasid ila Esn al-Maqasid, Ibn Khaldun’s
Muqaddimah, Tashkoprizada’s Miftah al-Saadat, Katib Celebi’s Kashf al-Zunun, and
Siddiq Hasan Khan’s Abjad al-Ulum. Researchers L.Baur, Moris de Wolf and P.
Maurice Bouyges showed the influence of Ihsa al-Ulum on Latin authors. Ihsa al-
Ulum was brought to England at late years of 12th century by Daniel Morlayer. (3)
Diploma (Degree) of Science. In eastern Islamic world, Nasirudin Tusi made begun
the education of rational and mathematical science and after a short time with the
influence of this teaching style, the other Islmaic countries followed the same
way. Qutbuddin al-Shirazi had given an ijazat (diploma) in science to Najmuddin
Abdurrahman al-Mawsili in Rabi al-Awwal 708(September 1308.) This new kind of
education system was carried to madrasas of Tabriz, Shiraz and Samarkand and then
to Ottoman lands. Qadizade had given an ijazat of rational and mathematical
sciences to Fathullah al-Shirwani in Samarkand in the first half of 15th century.
Al-Shirwani had followed the courses of chief professor (dean and chair) Qadizada
in methodology of Islamic law, Islamic theology, jadal and khilaf (science of
disputation as a branch of jurisprudence), astronomy, geometry and the other
mathematical sciences. The date of Qadizada’s ijazatnama to Fathullah al-Shirwani
is Rabi al-Akhir 15, 844(September 13, 1440 A.D) and the textbooks were followed
by al-Shirwani were written in ijazatnama: Sharh al-Tazkiratu al-Nasiriyye fi al-
Hay’a (Sharhu Nizamuddin al-A’raj al-Nisaburi), Sharhu Mukhtasar Ibn Hajib fi
ilmay al-Usul wa al-Jadal (Sayyid Sharif Jurjani) Sharhu al-Mawaqif(Jurjani),
Sharhu Mulakhkhas fil al-Hay’a (Qadizada), Sharhu Ashkal al-Ta’sis (Qadizada).
After returned to Turkey, Shirwani gave courses to his students from the textbooks
of Qadizada’s Sharhu al-Mulakhkhas and Sharhu Ashkal al-Ta’sis that there were a
lot of students that followed these courses even some scholars like Muhyiddin
Muhammad al-Niksari, Kamaluddin Mas’ud al-Shirwani. Fathullah al-Shirwani was
giving courses of mathematics, astronomy and geography with the courses of Arabic
grammar and Islamic subjects. (4) And Jalaluddin al-Dawwani had given an ijazat to
Muayyadzada Abdurrahman Amasi in 888(1483 A.D.) Shamsuddin al-Ushi had taken an
ijazat from Haja Muhammad Parsa after completed the science and religious courses
as a full diploma (ijazatnama-i umumi) in Rabi al-Awwal 796(March 1394.) Sometimes
one scholar was teaching all of the sciences and religious courses and giving one
diploma; sometimes student was following different courses from different scholars
and taking different certificates.(5)
2-Critical Thought in Science Education
Empirical method, objectivity and critical thought were the main characteristics
of classical Islamic sciences. Jabir b. Hayyan (d. 200 A.H/ 815 A.D) as one of the
pioneer names, his studies spreaded from mathematics, astronomy, medicine to
philosophy, chemistry. But he is the first degree chemist. E. J. Holmyard first
saw Jabir’s distinguished position in chemistry and Jabir had shaped the
chemistry as a systematic empirical science. E.O. Lippmann says: “Jabir’s place in
chemistry is equal to the founders of modern chemistry Boyle, Priestley and
Lavoiser. As a reality that Jabir had comprehended exactly the importance of
empirical method in (natural) sciences and had applied this method in all of his
studies. His statement: “We only mentioned in this book, ‘knowledges that after we
tested the characteristics of what we observed’ not we (only) listened or not
(only) was said to us or not we (only) read” shows his giving importance to
empirical method. Every medieval chemists had been influenced by Jabir, even Roger
Bacon had said for him: “master of the masters.”(6)
Fargani (d. 247 A:H/ 861 A.D) is the famous mathematician-astronomer in the
periods of caliphs Ma’mun, Mu’tasim Billah, Vathiq Billah, and Mutawakkil Ala-
Allah. His book Jawamiu Ilm al-Nujum wa Usul al-Harakat al-Samawiyya became
famous in Islamic world but especially in Europe. Fargani put objections against
Ptolemy (Ptolemaios) in this book. After translated the book into Latin by
Johannes Hispalensis in 1134 and by Gherardo Cremonese in 1175 a great acceptance
was seen because Fargani’s book was excellent in its content and in its systematic
Muslim astronomers investigated the similarities among the Iran (Sassanian),
Indian and Greek systems and they worked to establish an eclectic astronomy, on
the other hand they corrected the parameters of Ptolemy (Ptolemaios) that they
developed new and healthier observation techniques of measurements. Although
Ptolemy’s earth-center universe model protected its (dominant) place in Islamic
world for centuries but muslim astronomers did not copy exactly the geography of
Ptolemy that they also developed new techniques and systems using the knowledges
of Indian and Sassanians and they corrected and completed the geography of
Ptolemy. (8) Astronomer and mathematician al-Badi’ al-Usturlabi (d. 534 A.H/ 1139
A.D) first studied in Isfahan and then came to Baghdad and did scientific studies
under the patronage of caliph Mustarshid Billah; Usturlabi worked on the
instruments of observations and developed them and it had been possible with his
studies to measure more than one latitude using one instrument. (9)
Jabir b. Aflah’s Kitab al-Hay’a fi Islah alMajasti gave a big reputation to him
that he had written it to correct the mistakes of Ptolemy’s. He died probably in
the middle of 12th century and his book was translated into Hebrew in 1274 by
Moses b. Tibbon and then Jokob b. Mahir and Samuel b. Judah corrected the
translation in 1335. Gherardo of Cremonese translated the book into Latin and
published in Nurnberg, in 1534. Jabir put the knowledges
on spherical trigometry in the introduction part of his book that especially this
section is very important. R.P. Lorch prepared a doctorate dissertation Jabir b.
Aflah and His Influence in the West in 1970.(10) Muslim physicians had written
refutations against the books of Hippocrates and Galenos and these refutations
were being read with the original texts of Hippocrates and Galenos. (11) Famous
physician Fakhruddin al-Mardini had corrected some sentences of Ibn Sina’s al-
Qanun fi al-Tib with the helps of his teacher Ibn al-Tilmiz in Baghdad. (12) Al-
Qanun fi al-Tib was also criticized by Ibn al-Nafis famous physician of 13th
century that Ibn al-Nafis criticized the anatomy part of Ibn Sina’s book and wrote
a book Sharhu Tashrih al-Qanun li Ibn Sina (13) All of the famous physicians of
the Bimaristani (Hospital) of Nuruddin in Syria in 13th century: Abu al-Majd b.
Abu al-Hakam, Dahwar, Ibn Abu Usaybia, Ibn al-Nafis, Ibn al-Quf had got critical
thought and produced a lot of original books and papers on medicine.(14) Another
famous physician of 13th century Abdullatif al-Baghdadi (d. 1231) that he was
graduated from the Madrasa of Nizamiyya of Baghdad that he had showed the mistakes
of Galenos on osteology (science of bones.)
Andalusian scholar IbnTufayl had suggested to his student Bitruji to criticize the
astronomical system of Ptolemy and changed the system depending on the datas of
Aristotle’s philosophy of physics, in 12th century. Bitruji put a (different
system from the model of Ptolemy) new system using eccentrics and episics.Before
Bitruji, in one of his books, Ibn Tufayl had promised to develop like a this
system but it is understood that he could not realize it. But F.J.Carmody claims
that there was a book of Ibn Tufayl that did not reach today that the sources of
Bitruji’s system of astronomy and thoughts of Ibn Rushd on this topic were taken
from Ibn Tufayl. Ibn Rushd, Ibn Tufayl and Bitruji lived in the same years.
Bitruji studied in the way that his teacher Ibn Tufayl advised him and he wrote
Kitab al-Hay’at. To write this book, Bitruji, first, read Ja’bir b. Aflah’s Islah
al-Majasti and learned the criticisms on Ptolemy’s system that done (by muslim
scholars) before, and then defended his thesis. Bitruji’s astronomy system caused
a big reaction in Europe in 13th century. British astronomer William took
quotations from Bitruji and Grosseteste took Bitruji’s system as a base for his
studies when he rejected the system of Ptolemy. In the second half of 13th
century, there were great disputes between the defenders of Ptolemy and Bitruji.
Isaac Israeli of Toledo was saying for Bitruji: “Man who shakes the world with his
theory.” Criticisms of Andalusian scholars like Ibn Bajja, Ibn Tufayl, Ibn Rushd,
Bitruji, Ibn al-Aflah against Ptolemy’s theory, became a sources of inspiration
for critics of Ptolemy for European scholars in the Renaissance period.(15)
Ibn Rushd as a great scholar in religious studies and sciences and an Islamic
judge, he explains the disputed popular problem of that days of Islamic world that
‘is it permissible to learn a science that non-muslims established (or/and
developed) it. Kindi had mentioned this topic before Ibn Rushd. Ibn Rushd (and
Kindi) says “continuity is the base in the knowledge; the successors uses the
knowledges of the formers. It is a natural and historical necessity that to profit
from the accumulated knowledge and to develop it that it is the common good of all
of the humanity. Ibn Rushd approoaches the knowledges of non-muslims with an
eclectic attitude. He reaches a result that to use the thoughts of former thinkers
is wajib (necessary.) As a famous Islamic jurist Ibn Rushd says. “It is not a
justification to say ‘some men become heretic because of they read philosphy’ that
we can say also some men (in the Islamic history) become heretic although they
read (only) fiqh (Islamic law) that we do not say ‘fiqh is harmful and should be
prohibited’” (16)
Scientists of Islamic world when they were rewriting and correcting the mistakes
of old ancient books but they also produced Arabic terms and established an
original Islamic sciences terminologies. The books of the renowned Greek
mathematician Apollonios (Pergaeusan) were translated into Arabic. His famous book
Konika (on geometry) was translated as Kitab al-Makhrutat. The first four parts of
this book was translated by Hilal al-Himsi, the others were translated by Thabit
b. Qurra and Banu Musa corrected some parts of this book as Ilmu Ashkal Qutui al-
Makhrutat. Different muslim scholars wrote expoundings on this book pointing their
criticisms and saying their original opinions. Tasaffuh al-Makhrutat of Abdulmalik
al-Shirazi, Maqala fi Tamami Kitabi al-Makhrutat of Ibn Haytham and Sharhu Kitab
Abuluniyus fi al-Makhrutat are from them. Apollonius’s booklet on arithmetic that
it had been written on irrational quantities, it was translated into Arabic as al-
Maqalat al-Ula min Kitab Biyus fi al-A’zam al-Muntaqa wa al-Sum; his the other
book on pulleys was translated as Kitab fi al-Bakra and his booklet on making of
hydrological instruments was translated as Risala San’atu al-Zamr. (17)
Empirical Study in Botany. Empirical study in pharmacology and botany in the
period of Ayyubids was very interesting. Scholars Rashiduddin al-Suri and Ibn al-
Baytar were going to mountains, countrysides and gardens, doing botany researches
with their students and the artist of Rashidudin al-Suri was drawing the pictures
of plants in different times.Ibn al-Baytar was the chief-botanist (rais alashshabin)
of Sultans of Egypt al-Malik al-Kamil and al-Malik al-Salih and he had
organized tours to Andalusia, North Africa, Syria and Turkey for searching plants.
3-Courses in Medical Education.
Gawhar Nesibe College of Medicine had got an excellent tertiary education in
medical sciences from the early years of 13th century, in Central Turkey. There
were two buildings that the people of the Kayseri (city) used to say “twin
madrasas” that one of them Ghiyasiyya for the theoretical teaching and Shifaiyya
as a hospital for practical education. There were approximately thirty faculty
members in the madrasa. These lecturers were giving the courses
of anatomy, physiology, religious subjects, Arabic, Persian, philosophy. Oculist
(kahhal) Qutbuddin Shirazi(d. 1311 A.D) had written an expounding on Ibn Sina’s
al-Qanun fi al-Tib;
and the other faculty member Ibrahim Ghazanfar an expounding on Biruni’s Kitab al-
Saydala. scholar Ali Sivasi had written a book Kitab al-Iksir al-Hayat fi Tahrir
al-Qawaid. Translations of books of Hippocrates and Galenos, and refutations
against them; books of Abubekir Razi and Ibn Sina were the main textbooks of
Gawhar Nesibe College of Medicine. (19) Ibn Sina’s books were the main textbooks
in medicine, logic, philosophy in all of the mediavel century both in Islamic and
Western world. Fakhruddin al-Mardini (512-94 A.H/ 1118-98 A.D) also had given
courses from Ibn Sina’s al-Qanun fi al-Tib first in Baghdad; and then in Dimashq
and famous physician Muhazzabuddin Abddurrahman had taken courses from Fakhruddin
al-Mardini on al-Qanun (20)
12th century phyician Aynzarbi is famous with his rational approach in scientific
researches, his high ability for collecting the datas and dominance on scientific
terminology. He presents his comments with objectivity and depends on sound
foundations and he uses his clinical experiments. He described the diseases of
(large) carbuncle and furuncle, as a first physician in the history of medicine
and put the differences between them that is appropriate to today’s medical
understanding. (21)
The first Madrasa of Tib (Faculty of Medical Sciences) was established by
Muhazzabuddin al-Dahwar (628 A.H/ 1230 A.D) chief physician of Ayyubids. Practical
medical education was being taught in madrasas and hospitals and was being
supported by applications in the hospitals. Practical medical education was very
developed that physicians and students used to visit ills and doctors used to held
consultations to decide whether an operation was necessary and students used to
follow the consultations. (22)
Ibn al-Quf (630-85 A.H/ 1233-86 A:D) was the student of famous scholar Ibn Abu
Usaybia. Ibn a-Quf followed the courses of theoretical and practical medical
education of Ibn Abu Usaybia. Texts of Hippocrates like Kitab al-Fusul,Taqdimat
al-Ma’rifa and Hunayn b. Ishaq’s Kitab al-Masail fi al-Tib li al-Mutaallimin and
books of Abubekir Razi were the main textbooks that Ibn Abu Usaybia was giving his
courses from these books. After then, Ibn al-Quf went to Dimashq and followed the
courses of scholars of philosophy Khusrawshahi and Izzuddin Hasan al-Darir and
courses of Muwaffaquddin Ya’qub al-Samiri on medicine; and followed the course of
Muayyiduddin al-Arazi on Kitab al-Oklidis. (23) The famous oculist and historian
of medicine of 13th century Ibn Abu Usaybia describes the medical education in
Bimaristani Nuruddin in Dimashq Syria that Abu al-Majd b. Abu al-Hakam the chief
physician of this hospital (every morning) used to visit the ills with his
assistans and advises necessary diets and drugs for the sicks and then chief
physician used to come to
aywan (three-walled vaulted antechamber, open at the front) and begin to give his
course (that lasts three hours every day) that explains the conditions of the ills
according to the books of Galenos, Abubakir Razi, Ibn Sina and says his personal
thoughts in a course of theoretical but depends on practical applications (of
every mornings.)(24)
In 1284, Bimaristani Qalawun (Bimaristani Mansuri) was established by Mansur al-
Qalawun Sultan of Mamluks in Cairo that had imitated the style of Bimaristani
Nuruddin. Theoretical and practical medical education was being supported by a
great library that great physician Ibn al-Nafis donated his books to this
institution. This institution was going on its duty even in 17th century. (25)
Excellent medical academic education is seen in the medical colleges of Cairo,
Dimashq, Basra, Qayseri, and even smaller cities like Amasya, Divrigi in 12 and
13th centuries in East Islamic World.
The textbooks in Seljukids Hospitals between 11th-14th centuries:
The First Year: Hunayn b. Ishaq’s al-Masail fi al-Tib, Madkhal fi al-Tib;
Hippocrates’s Aphorismas (Fusulu Bukrat),Mau al-Shair; Nili al Nishaburi’s
expoundings on these books.
The second year: Abubekir Razi’s Kitab al-Tib al-Mansuri, Galenos’s Summeria
Alexandrinorum (16 Papers of Galenos), Tashrihu Buzurk, Thabit b. Qurra’s Zakhira,
Abubekir Ajwini’s Hidaya; Ahmad Faraj’s Kifaya (or Ahliyya); Sayyid Ismail b.
Hasan al-Jurjani’s Zakhira-i Kharizmshahi; Sahli Masihi’s Sad Bab;
Third and following years: Abubekir Razi’s Kitab al-Hawi; Ali b. Abbas al-Majusi’s
al-Kitab al-Malaki; Ibn Sina’s al-Qanun fi al-Tib
The medical textbooks in Europe (Salerno, Montpellier, Paris) between 12th-16th
The First Year: Hunayn b. Ishaq (Johannitus), Isagoge in artem parvam Galeni;
Hippocrates, Aphorismen, Prognostikon, De regimine acutorum.
The Second Year: Abubekir Razi (Rhazes), Liber de medicina admansorem; Galenos,
Summeria Alexandrinorum; De malicia complexionis, De ingenio complexionis, De
ingenio sanitatis, De simplici medicina, De morbo et accidenti, De crisi et critis
diebus .
The Third and Following Years: Abubekir Razi, Liber Continens; Ali b. Abbas al-
Majusi (Haly Abbas), Liber regius; Ibn al-Jazzar, Viaticum; Ibn Sina (Avicenna),
Canon medicinae.
When a confrontation is done, it is seen that Islamic medical education influenced
the European medicine curricula. The ‘Ibn Sina (Avicenna) chair’ had been
established in Vallodolid in 17th century. Approximately 1,000 years ago, in 1072,
Said b. Hasan al-Mutatabbib had written a book Kitab al-Tashwiq al-Tibbi on
ethics of physicians and he expressed the realations betwen ill and physician and
and he had explained how students have to behave to ills when they were in
practical education in the hospitals. Another interesting note that Hippocratic
Oath was not known (or forgotten) in Europe. Abdurrahman b. Nasr al-Shayzari had
noted in his book Nihayat al-Rutba fi Talab al-Hisba “physicians must be tested in
the presence of chief physician and they should say Hippocratic Oath, in 12th
century. Muslims had changed the sentences of the Oath translating into Arabic
saying ‘I swear by Allah’ in place of original text ‘I swear by Apollo’ and from
the year of 1231 European physicians began to say Hippocratic Oath after passed
the graduation tests in Salerno Medical College. (26)
Prof. Arslan Terzioglu studied approximately 35 years on history of Islamic
medicine that he notes the first doctorate dissertation in the world in medical
sciences was completed in 1178 (A.D) in Bimaristani Adudi that the thesis was a
study on principles of hygiene of Galenos and its title was Kitabu Jalinus fi
Tadbir al-Sihha and we can see in the first page of the thesis that it had been
read and approved by chief physician Abu Said al-Harawi. Theoretical education was
four days in Ottoman Shifakhanai Sulaymaniyya in Istanbul in 16th century and the
students used to take cilinical education in the hospital near the madrasa that
Jalalzada Mustafa Chalabi gives detailed knowledge in Tabaqat al-Mamalik wa
Darajat al-Masalik about the medical education.
In 12th and 13th centuries in Turkey, some madrasas had been specialized on (only)
Islamic law or (only) medicine or hadith or geometry. Ince Minareli Madrasa in
Konya(City) was a madrasa of hadith, Sircali Madrasa was an Islamic Law College.
Cifte Madrasa in Kayseri (city) was a Medical College; Madrasa of Cacabey in
Kirsehir (city) and Madrasa of Vajidiyya in Kutahya (city) were giving (only)
astronomy and geometry educations. (27)
Al-Zaviyat al-Fasiyya is an example of teaching of sciences and religious subjects
were being taught together in the same school, in 17th century. Although
Abdurrahman al-Fasi (1040-96 A.H/ 1631-85 A.D) is the most famous scholar of this
madrasa but teachers of this school like Abdulqadir al-Fasi, Ahmad al-Fasi,
Muhammad Mayyara, Ahmad al-Qalasadi, Muhammad al-Sabbag, Abdulqadir al-Tulaytili,
Hamdun al-Abbar show that there was a historical tradition in teaching of sciences
in Morocco. The father of grandfather of Abdurrahman, Abu al-Mahasin al-Fasi had
established this institution in the early years of 16th century. Abdurrahman
al-Fasi learned mathematics, astronomy, medicine, chemistry, agriculture and
veterinary in this madrasa and then taught. He wrote more than 200 books (probably
some of them are booklets) in all of the science, arts and religious disciplines.
His study al-Uqnum fi Mabadi (Manahij) al-ulum is a book on classification of
knowledge that 278 disciplines are mentioned and encyclopedic knowledge of author
is seen. Tabyin al-Mujmal fi ilm al-Jadwal; al-Intikhab fi wad al-Usturlab; Iqd
al-Jawhar fi Rub al-Muqantar; al-Matlab fi al-Rub al-Mujayyab; are about
Muhammad al-Farisi(d. 677 A.H/1278 A.D) was born in Aden, Yemen; and he learned
Arabic grammar, Arabic literature, logic, Islamic law, medicine and astronomy from
different teachers of Aden and he became a renowned scholar especially in
astronomy. He wrote three books on astronomy and two on medicine.(29)
Mathematician and astronomer Abdulqadir al-Fayyumi (d. 1022 A:H/ 1613 A:D) first
learned Islamic law of Shafii school from Shamsuddin al-Ramli in Cairo.And then he
took courses from Shahabuddin al-Sunbati, Abu al-Naja al-Sanhuri, Salih al-
Bulquni. He followed the mathematics courses of Sayyid Sharif al-Tahhan. At the
end, he became a renowned scholar in religious subjects and mathematics, astronomy
and ilm al-miqat(science of choronological
or astronomical times(for calculating ephemerides). He wrote books on astronomy
mathematics and religious topics that the curricula of 15th and 16th centuries may
be learned from his books and it is also understood that there was an intensive
education on mathematics and astronomy in Egypt: Jadawilu Makhlul al-Matali al-
Falaki: depending on the Ulug Bey’s tables of astronomy, Fayyumi explains the acts
of signs of the zodiac. Jadawilu Ikhtilafi Manzar al-Qamar: different shapes of
moon are searched according to the tables of Ulug Bey. Nazm al-Jawahir wa al-
Yawaqit: about to fix the times. Sharhu Murshidat al-Talib:an expounding on Ibn
Haim’s mathematics book. Sharhu Nuzhat al-Nuzzar: also an expounding on his book
Sharhu Murshidat al-Talib. Sharh ala al-Muqni: an expounding on Muqni (Ibn Haim’s
algebra book).(30)
‘Allamah’ (very learned, exceedingly learned) type scholars are seen to the first
half of 19th century. Indian scholars Fadl Imam al-Khayrabadi (d. 1244 A.H/ 1829
A.D) took all of the religious and other courses from famous scholar of North
India Abdulwajid Kirmani. Khayrabadi was an expert in different disciplines from
Islamic law to medicine. He used to give courses of logic and philosophy and he
had written Talkhis al-Shifa as a book, it contains summary of Ibn Sina’s al-
Shifa. Al-Mirqat al-Mizaniyya as a textbook on logic and Amadnama as a textbook
for beginners of Persian were also writen by Khayrabadi.(31)
4-Curricula in Ottoman Madrasas
Alauddin Fanari (903 A.H/ 1497 A.D) was the chief judge of Ottoman Empire. He
first was the faculty member in the madrasas of Bukhara in Central Asia and then
returning to home he also went on his teaching duties in different madrasas of
Ottoman Empire. More than twenty years he worked as a judge in Bursa city and as
qadiasker (chief judge) in Istanbul. He was a renowned scholar in Islamic law and
methodology of Islamic law but also in mathematics and he used to go on teaching
duty when he was a judge. He had written an expounding on book of al-Tajnis in
Tashkopruluzada (Taskopruluzada) (d. 968 A.H/ 1561 A.D) notes which sciences were
being taught in Ottoman madrasas in 16th century:
Arithmetical Sciences (Ilm al-Adad):
1-Ilm al-Hisab al-Takht wa al-Mil: Ibn al-Yasamin’s book is an easy book in these
subjects and Hassar’s book is difficult. Ali Kushci’s book al-Muhammadiyya is a
useful book also al-Mukhtasar al-Salahi. 2-Ilm al-Jabr wa al-Muqabala. Ibn al-
Fallus al-Maridini’s Nisab al-Habr and Ibn Mahalli al-Mawsili’s Kitab al-Mufid and
Nasiruddin Tusi’s Kitab al-Zafar are middle size books in this science and Ibn
Mahalli’s Jami al-Usul, Abu Kamil al-Shuja’s Kitab al-Kamil are detailed books. 3-
Ilm al-Hisab al-Khata’ayn. This science teaches unknown with expressing unknown
problems in four ratios numbers. Zaynuddin al-Magribi’s book is sufficient in this
science. 4-Ilm Hisab al-Dawr wa al-Wasaya. Afdaluddin al-Khunji’s book is one the
books of this science. 5-Ilm al-Hisab al-Dirham wa al-Dinar. Al-Kharaqi’s
al-Risalatu al-Shamila and Samaw al-Magribi’s al-Kafi and Ibn Fallus al-Maridini’s
book and al-Magribi’s Risala are the books of this science.6-Ilmu Hisab al-Faraiz
7-Ilm al-Hisab al-Hawa: teaches calculation from memory. Abu al-Qasim’s al-Kafi
and Kamil, Sharhu al-Shamsiyya fi al-Hisab, Sharhu Mukhtasar al-Salahi, Asas al-
Qawaid fi Sharhu Usul al-Fawaid are the deatiled books of this science. 8-Ilm Usul
al-Uqud: for shopkeepers and traders. Ibn Harb’s Urjuza and Sharafuddin al-Yazdi’s
Risala are for this science.9-Ilm al-Ta’ab al-Adadiyya: for army officers.
Abdurrahman al-Bistami’s book is very good in this science.( 33)
Geometrical Sciences:1- Ilm al-Uqud al-Abniyya: civil engeneering and hydrology
are include to this science. Ibn al-Haytham and Karaji wrote useful books in this
science. 2-Ilm al-Misaha: for title deeds and dividing of lands. Ibn Mahalli, Ibn
Mukhtar and Archimedes’s books in this science are followed in Ottoman curricula.
3-Ilm Inbat al-Miyah: to take out the undergraund waters (hydrology). Karaji’s
Mukhtasar is the main textbook in this science and there is another book as Kitab
al-Filahat al-Nabatiyya that the main topics of this science are described in this
book. 4-Ilm al-Riyaqa (Ilm Istinbat a-Miyah) the same Ilm Inbat al-Miyah 5- Ilm
al-Awzan wa al-Mawazin: to lift the heavy articles (34)
Taskopruluzada mentiones 20 different sub-discipline in astronomy in Ottoman
1-Ilm al-Zicat wa al-Taqawim:actions of planets and especially seven big of them;
eclipse of the moon and solar eclipse: Zij-i Nasiruddin Tusi, Zij-i Ali Kushji. 2-
Ilm Kitabat al-Taqawim: private lists about 12 months, seasons: Nasiruddin Tusi’s
Risale-i Si Fasl 3-Ilm Hisab al-Nujum 4-Ilm Kayfiyyat al-Arsad: for advanced study
in astronomy: Ibn Haytham’s Kitab al-Arsad 5-Ilm Alat al-Rasadiyya: Instructions
for using observatory instruments. Khazini’s Kitab al-Alat al-Ajiba. 6-Ilm al-
Mawaqit: beginning times of days and nights, especially for prayers and the
direcion of Qibla. This science also informs the deviation of directions. Nafais
al-Yawaqit fi Ahwal al-Mawaqit and Abu Ali al-Marraqushi’s Jamiu al-Mabadi wa al-
Gayat are the main textbooks in this science. 7-Ilm Alat al-Zilliyya: about
instruments measure the shadows. Ibrahim b. Sinan al-Harrani’s book is a useful
book in these topics. 8- Ilm al-Ukar. About spheres and measurements of them. 9-
Ilm Ukar al-Mutaharrika: astronomy is also in need of this science about spheres.
Ukara Menelaos and Ukaru Theodosius are useful books in these subjects. 10-Ilm
Tastih al-Kura: an extraordinary difficult science about also about spheres.
Fargani’s al-Muhdath al-Kamil, Biruni’s Kitab al-Istiab, Ptolemaios’s Kitab Tastih
al-Kura, Marraqushi’s Alat al-Taqwim are the main books in this science. 11-Ilm
Suwar al-Kawakib: the places of 1220 stars. Abdurrahman al-Sufi’s Risala al-Suwar
al-Kawakib is a very useful textbook in this science. 12-Ilm Maqadir al-Ulwiyyat.
Bigness of sun, earth and moon, distances of stars and the other sky objects from
each other. 13-Ilm Manazil al-Qamar: about moon’s 28 stations.14-Ilm Mawasim al-
Sana: national and religious days of all nations. 15-Ilm al-Mawaqit al-Salat:
times of daily prayers. 16- Ilm Wad’i al-Usturlab: science for making of
astrolobe. 17- Ilm Amal al-Usturlab: science of understanding of astrolobe 18-Ilm
Wad’i Rub al-Daira al-Mujayyab wa al-Muqantarat: a science about also astrolobe.
19-Ilm Rub al-Daira: about astrolobe 20-Ilm Alat al-Saat: describes the tools made
for knowing hours of the day.(35) Religious subjects and (Arabic) literature are
the core courses; philosophy, mathematics and medicine were optional courses of
Ottoman madrasas in 15th and 16 centuries.(36)
Conclusion. New researches are putting very original findings in Islamic science
education in classical period. Influence of classical Islamic sciences to western
world is more than guessed to today. From the early days of translation period, at
least five centuries(even more), critical thought and empirical method are the
main instruments of muslim scientists. A non-stop study and very systematic
education developed the curricula of Islamic sciences; always newest findings used
to be added to scientific textbooks of Islamic madrasas (academies); muslim
scientists always to be busy with rewriting the textbooks that this approach
gained well trained assistants, students and junior scholars and at the end
produced senior powerful scholars. Inter-disciplinary or/sometimes/ in some
madrasas unidisciplinary approach was applied in the curricula but detailed
scientific study was not neglected.
1-Harun Anay, “Felsefe (Literatur)”, Turkiye Diyanet Vakfi Islam Ansiklopedisi
(‘DIA’ will be used in the below footnotes), v, 12, pp, 319-30
2-Mahmut Kaya, “Farabi”, DIA, v, 12, pp, 145-62
3-Mahmut Kaya, “Ihsau’l-Ulum”, DIA, v, XXI, pp, 549-50
4-Cemil Akpinar, “Fethullah es-Sirvani”, DIA, v, XII , pp, 463-66
5-Cemil Akpinar, “Icazet”, DIA, v, XXI, pp, 393-400
6-Mahmut Kaya, “Cabir b. Hayyan”, DIA, v, VI, pp, 533-37(from Mukhtaru Rasaili
Jabir b. Hayyan(published by P. Kraus), Cairo 1354, p, 232; Celal Sarac, “Cabir b.
Hayyan Uzerine”, Istanbul Yuksek Islam Enstitusu Dergisi, I, Istanbul 1963, p, 4-
7-Mahmut Kaya-Sami Seltut, “Fergani”, DIA, v, XII, pp, 377-78
8-Cengiz Aydin-Gulseren Aydin, “Batlamyus”, DIA, v, V, pp, 196-99
9-Ferruh Muftuoglu, “Bedi el-Usturlabi”, DIA, V, p, 322
10-Muammer Dizer, “Cabir b. Eflah”, DIA, v, VI, pp, 532-33 (There are four Jabirs
in the History Islamic Sciences and majority of the scholars have not noticed
this: chemist Jabir b. Hayyan, mathematician-astronomer Ja’far b. Aflak, famous
astronomer Muhammad b. Jabir al-Battani and Andalusian astronomer Jabir b. Aflah)
11-Ahmet Hulusi Koker, “Gevher Nesibe Darussifasi ve Tib Medresesi”, DIA, v, XIV,
pp, 39-42
12-Ali Durusoy, “Fahreddin el-Mardini”, DIA, v, XII, pp, 86-87
13-Arslan Terzioglu, “Bimaristan”, DIA, v, VI, pp, 163-78
14-ibid, pp, 169 (from M. Meyerhof, Ibn an-Nafis und seineTheorie des
Lungenkreislaufes, Berlin 1933, p, 42; M.Ullman, Die Medizin in Islam, Leiden-Koln
1970, pp, 176-77)
15-Mahmut Kaya, “Bitruci”, DIA, v, VI, pp, 229-30
16-H.Bekir Karliga, “Faslu’l-Makal”, DIA, XII, pp, 217-19 (from Kindi, Rasail I,
102-103; Ibn Rusd, Faslu’l-makal:Felsefe ve Din ─░liskileri, (trs. and pub. Bekir
Karliga, Istanbul 1992, p, 59-60)
17-Sami Selhub, “Apollonios, Pergeli”, DIA, v, III, pp, 239-40
18-Ramazan Sesen, “Eyyubiler”, DIA, v, XII, pp, 20-31
19-Ahmet Hulusi Koker, “Gevher Nesibe Darussifasi ve Tib Medresesi”, DIA, v, 14,
pp, 39-42
20-Ali Durusoy, “Fahreddin el-Mardini”, DIA, v, XII, pp, 86-87
21-Hasan Dogruyol, “Aynizerbi”, DIA, v, IV, pp, 278-79
22-Ramazan Sesen, “Eyyubiler”, DIA, v, XII, pp, 20-31
23-Omer Mahir Alper, “Ibnul-Kuf”, v, XXI, pp, 115-17
24-Arslan Terzioglu, “Bimaristan”, DIA, v, VI, pp, 163-78
25-ibid(from:Ahmad Isa, Tarikh al-Bimaristanat fi al-Islam, Dimashq 1357)
26-ibid(from: Pascha M. Herz, “Die Baugruppe des Sultans Qalaun in Kairo”,
Abhandlungen des Hamburgischen Kolonial-Instituts, 42, hamburg 1919, pp, 1-43)
27-Mehmet Ipsirli, “Anadolu(Egitim ve Ogretim)”, DIA, v, III, pp, 128-30
28-Ibrahim harekat, “Fasi, Abdurrahman b. Abdulkadir”, v, XII, pp, 210-11
29-Sami Selhub, “Farisi, Muhammed b. Ebu Bekir”, DIA, v, XII, pp, 170-71
30-Salim Ogut, “Feyyumi, Abdulkadir b. Muhammed”, DIA, v, XII, pp, 515-16(from:
Suter, Die Mathematiker, p, 171, 193-94
31-A. S. Bazmee Ansari, “Fazl-i Imam Hayrabadi”, DIA, v, XII, p, 274
32-Hamdi Donduren, “Fenari, Alaeddin”, DIA, v, XII, p, 337
33- Cevat Izgi, Osmanli Medreselerinde Ilim, v, I, pp, 193-97
34-ibid, v, I, pp, 265-68
35-ibid, v, I, pp, 334-40
36-Ismail Hakki Uzuncarsili, v, I, pp, 520-41
Izgi Cevat, Osmanli Medreselerinde Ilim, I-II, Istanbul 1997, Iz Yayincilik
Turkiye Diyanet Vakfi Islam Ansiklopedisi, I-XXXI, Istanbul 1987- Divantas
Uzuncarsili Ismail Hakki, Buyuk Osmanli Tarihi, I-VI, 7th edition (no date),
Publications of Turkish History Association

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